Exclusion is when some people are “left aside”. That is, they do not have the possibility to engage with others, to have a say on an issue, or to take part in joint action. It is like being out of a ‘circle’. There are many such circles in society, and each of us might be – willingly or unwillingly - excluded by some and included in others. 

For example, one can be included - and even leader - within a group of peers, and yet excluded in decision making in the neighbourhood. Or, viceversa, even local leaders might be excluded by the “circles” formed by minorities or dissidents. The first step is to identify what circle matters for Disaster Risk Management. Circles can be local and small. Or can be as big as the governance of a nation.